Stages of Water Treatment

Breaking Down the Stages of Water Treatment Process: An Overview Step by Step

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Water is the most important component of all living beings and consuming safe and purified water is required by all. The process of treating water involves getting rid of any biological, chemical, or physical impurities that could endanger the water supply for household and human usage is what we call Water Treatment process. There are a few stages of Water Treatment that must be followed to get clean and pure water and in this blog, we are going to introduce you to the step-by-step process of water treatment.

On account, it was estimated that 20 to 40% of water is wasted through leakage and wastage in India. This water undergoes double treatment without any use. If only 10% of wastewater is saved every year, it could save approximately ₹550 crores for the Indian government. The water is tested by the government before it is sent for public use. To guarantee that water is properly cleansed and benefits the community, it is essential to comply with the stages of water treatment steps.

essential to comply with the stages of water treatment steps.

Different Stages of Water Treatment Process

We must conserve this priceless resource by harvesting as much water as we can in order to meet the demands of an expanding population. However, water must undergo thorough stages of the water treatment process before it can be certified fit for human consumption. There are various benefits of wastewater treatment facilities. The most important is it helps to avoid disease in living beings after consumption.

A typical water treatment procedure today consists of seven different phases. These procedures may not be used at every treatment facility in India (or even the entire world), but they form the backbone of the water treatment sector. These are the seven steps:

Collection & Screening

Water must first be gathered from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs before it can be treated. A complicated network of pumps and pipelines is typically used to convey the water from the source to the treatment facility. Water enters a water treatment facility through screening after coming from lakes, rivers, or the ground. Large natural pollutants are kept out of the water by this filtering. These can be anything, including fish, wood, plastic, etc. With groundwater sources, screening is not as important because the act of extracting the water from the ground serves as a natural screening mechanism.


Workers at the treatment facility add chemicals to the water during the coagulation stage, which causes particles to develop in the water. The most popular coagulants are ferric and aluminium sulphates. They are incorporated into the water in a turbulent area. These compounds produce sticky particles that are referred to as floc. Floc draws dirt particles, which finally get so heavy that they sink to the bottom of the storage tank where it is located.


Coagulation is followed by flocculation. Water is gently mixed to generate larger, heavier particles known as flocs through a process called flocculation. In order to help in the formation of the flocs, water treatment facilities frequently add extra chemicals during this phase.

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Sediment is the term used to describe these floc and dirt fragments that are sinking to the bottom of the storage tank. During this procedure, both the water and the sediment in the water move into a sedimentation basin. Water flow velocity is decreased in sedimentation tanks so that suspended materials can settle more easily. Again, the heavier floc particles drop to the basin’s bottom and stay there until they are removed.


After that, a layer of sand and gravel is passed over the cleaned water. (occasionally charcoal as well). During this procedure, the sand layer is approximately 2.5 feet deep and the gravel layer is normally about 1 foot deep. Gravity filters are frequently used to eliminate floc, while pressure filters are frequently used to maintain the hydraulic head. These filtering systems get rid of any extra particles, like turbidity and algae, that remain after the sedimentation process. The water then enters a sealed tank after this. Alternatively, after settling in a sedimentation tank to remove sediments, it may be released back into the parent river.


Chlorine and other disinfection agents are used in this tank to eliminate any germs and pathogens present. As a result, the water is kept clean until it is distributed out for other purposes. Pipes are used in transporting clean water to residences and commercial buildings.

Water treatment facilities may add one or more chemical disinfectants (such as chlorine, chloramine, or chlorine dioxide) after the water has been filtered to eliminate any lingering parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Water treatment facilities make sure the water has low concentrations of the chemical disinfectant before it leaves the facility. This helps to keep water safe as it goes to residences and commercial establishments. The remaining disinfectant eliminates bacteria that are present in the pipes that run from the water treatment facility to your tap.

Storage & distribution

The water must be preserved until there is a need for it even if it is fundamentally prepared for public consumption. The most typical storage method is either above- or below-ground tanks. Water must be available for drinking as well as be kept on hand in case of emergencies like fires. A complicated network of pumps, tanks, pipes, hydrants, valves, and metres is ultimately used to provide water to residences and businesses across the nation.

Water must be accessible for drinking and emergency use, such as firefighting.


Depending on the condition of the source water that reaches the wastewater treatment facility, it may be treated differently in communities. Most frequently, either surface water or groundwater is the water that enters the treatment facility. It is then passed through different stages of water treatment to get pure and clean drinking water. The water is only passed into the environment for public consumption after passing through TDS checkups and other chemical checkups.

For in-depth insights, don’t hesitate to reach out to Mentor Water Experts at 7351002123 and schedule a consultation.


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